– Role of an electrical outlet
– Electrical plug and socket
– Types of sockets
– Number of electrical outlets
– Location of electrical outlets
Role of an electrical outlet
An electrical outlet allows you to power all your everyday electrical appliances: fridge, washing machine, coffee machine, vacuum cleaner, television, etc., by connecting them to the electrical network.
Electrical plug and socket: male and female electrical socket
The socket is recessed into the wall. For safety reasons, the contacts are made at the bottom of circular holes. In a socket outlet, the pin corresponding to the earth protrudes.
The male electrical socket (or plug) is inserted into the female socket. The pins are made of brass and correspond to the phase and neutral, possibly with an earth pin.
Types of sockets
There are different standards of electrical outlets around the world.
In some countries, they use:
Type C sockets: CEE 7/16 for low-power devices and CEE 7/17 for more powerful devices;
E and F: with earth.
In the United States and Canada, type A and B plugs are used (with flat pins).
All plugs and sockets are nowadays equipped with a protection device that blocks the sockets when not in use.
Number of power sockets
The NFC 15-100 standard requires a minimum number of electrical outlets per room:
Room: 3 sockets minimum + 1 communication socket placed next to one of them;
Kitchen: 6 electric sockets, 4 of which are above the worktop;
Sink: no sockets allowed above the sink and hob;
The household appliances must be connected to at least 3 dedicated sockets and to dedicated circuits, IE. independent, coming directly from the distribution board;
Freezer: it must also be equipped with a 30 mA differential device to avoid untimely power cuts.
Living room: 5 sockets for a living room of less than 20 m², for the upper surfaces take the surface area of the room (in m²) and divide by four to obtain the number of sockets;
Bathroom: divided into 4 distinct volumes:
Volume 0: it concerns the bathtub and the shower tray. All electrical equipment is strictly forbidden.
Volume 1: above the bathtub (from the floor to above the bottom of the shower tray). Tolerates 12 V low-voltage lighting if the safety transformer is in volume 2 or 3.
Volume 2: this is the area less than 60 cm from the shower or bathtub and 3 m high. It accepts 12 V lighting and a class I and II illuminated bathroom cabinet (protected from water spray). Volume 3: above 60 cm from the shower and bathtub and over 2.25 m in height. Class I and II equipment (protected from vertical water splashes) is permitted.
All lines must be equipped with a 30 mA differential device. An additional equipotential bonding must be installed. All conductive elements are connected to each other. This connection is then earthed to avoid any electrification.
Corridor and surface of more than 4 m²: 1 electrical outlet minimum;
Outside: the sockets are placed at a minimum height of 1 m on dedicated circuits and protected by a 30 mA differential device;
1 electrical outlet next to each communication socket: telephone or television.
Location of power sockets
Electrical outlets cannot be placed at any height. Minimum height above the finished floor must be respected: – at least 5 cm from the ground for 16 A or 20 A sockets; – at least 12 cm from the ground for 32 A sockets; – between 8 and 25 cm above the kitchen worktop.
Note: an electrical outlet must never be installed above a sink or cooking appliance.
Where can you find a professional electrician?
You can contact an electrical installation specialist in Suffolk County. They provide a complete range of residential electrical services, including electrical wiring, landscape lighting, electrical upgrades, and more. Hope next time your electrician talks to you about your dwelling’s electrical requirements, you will feel more knowledgeable on electrical outlets and plug and socket. And, remember to share your experience in the section below.